PANCHVAKTRA

Shiva is called as Panchvaktra because he possesses five faces. The five faces of Shiva are – Sadyojata, Vamdeva, Tatpurusha, Aghora and Ishan. Vedas describe it in details.
According to Puranas Lord Shankar expanded his five faces just to see Tilottama. In whichever direction she was dancingly wandering, Shiva emerged with a face there. Tilottama was created for the destruction of demons namely Sunda and Upasunda.
Moreover, Shiva is known as Panchvaktra because he utters Vedas with five methods namely Vidhi (rules), Mantra (incantation), Namdheya (pronunciation), Nishedha (regulations) and Arthavada (interpretation). In the spiritual science, Shiva is Panchvaktra because he is consuming five sense-objects by five sense-organs. The holes of the heart are also said to be five only. And Sadashiva alone is the creator of five sense-objects. Below is the explanation of Panchvaktra stated by Acharya Bhaskar—

सर्वेश! ब्रह्मतत्त्वेन्द्रियविषयकलाभूतसादाख्यमूर्ति
ष्वेकैकश्येन पञ्चात्मसु तव वदनेष्यादिहीनेषु सत्सु।
योऽयं सुन्दोपसुन्दासुरहनननिमित्ताप्सरस्तल्लजेक्षा
प्रादुर्भावः स तद्भक्त्यतिरभसकृतेऽजायधाः पञ्चवक्त्रः॥

Purport: O Lord Sarveshwar! You already have many five-faced forms namely Brahman, Tattwa, Sense-organs, Sense-objects, Kalaa, Bhoota, Sadakhya and Moorty, and all these are beginning-less. But again you created your five faces to look at the celestial damsel named Tilottama, who was created for the purpose of killing of Sunda demon. Her devotion for you was the only reason that you turned into Panchvaktra (five faced) though you are devoid of any face.
There are five Brahmans (Gods) namely Ishan etc. There are five Tattwas (factors) namely Purusha (controller), Prakriti (nature), Buddhi (intelligence), Ahankar (ego) and Mana (mind). Five knowledge acquiring sense-organs are— ears, skin, eyes, tongue and nostrils. Five working sense-organs are— speech, hands, legs, anus and genital. Five sense-objects are— sound, touch, form, taste and smell. Five objects of working sense-organs are— Vachan (words), Grihan (receiving), Gaman (walking), Visarga(evacuation) and Sukhopbhoga (pleasure-seeking). Five Kalaa are— Nivritti, Pratishtha, Vidya, Shanti and Shantyatita. Five gross material elements are— earth, water, fire, air and ether. Five Sadakhyas are the five famous scriptures viz. Shiv-Sadakhya, Moorta- Sadakhya, Amoorta- Sadakhya, Kartri- Sadakhya and Karma- Sadakhya. Five Moorty of Lord Shankar are— Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Mahadeva and Sadashiva. Shiva is known as Panchvaktra because he is manifested in the aforesaid forms. A captivating narration of these faces of the Lord is found in the 13th chapter of first section of Shiv-Rahasya. Omkar and Namah Shivaya is originated from Panchvaktra Mahadeva only.
Actually, through his five faces Lord Sadashiva is pointing towards Jiva (Living entity) also. Jiva is also five faced because he enjoys five sense-objects through his five sense-organs. Shiva made the Jiva equal to his own qualities. Avidya (ignorance) is the only cause of difference between Shiva and Jiva.
Often Shiva is said to be Panchvaktra, because he resides in the center of the heart. Sadyojata etc are mentioned as five holes of the heart. According to Shiva-Purana the order of Panch-Brahman is like this— Ishan, Tatpurusha, Aghora, Vamdeva, Sadyojata.
Jiva should realize his self as Shiva, this is the true sense of worship of Panchvaktra.

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